Natural Solutions Clinical Support

Understanding Blood Work and Recommending Natural Remedies

Blood Analysis

1.  Test           

The following figures and normal or range are used in conjunction with a standard smack (chem 24) blood test, along with a T-4 profile and C.B.C. with a differential. The recommendations listed by each test are those which have been shown in the past to have a positive effect on making specific recommendations for a period of two months. These ranges are narrower than the standard ranges used by most blood laboratories.

Listed below you will find each test showing the optimal range, followed by the formula number or numbers indicated to take when a particular test is either too high or too low. Also listed are a few other formulas by other companies when there is not a Nutritional Resource, Inc. formula available. Positive results have been obtained following these formulas for 60 to 180 days.

TEST

OPTIMAL RANGE

FORMULA IF HIGH

FORMULA IF LOW

T. Protein

7.1 – 7.8 g/dl

101

51

Albumin

4.0 – 4.5 g/dl

101

51

Calcium

9.3 – 9.7 mg/dl

74

71

Inorganic Phos.

3.3 – 3.6 mg/dl

71

74

Sodium

140 – 144 meg/ L

110 and/or 89

74

Potassium

4.9 -4.5 meg/L

116

74, 88 or 118

Chloride

101-105 meg L

More water and salt

133

SGOT

15.20 U/L

Female: 115 and 89

Male: 117 and 89

74

74

SGPT

20 – 25 U/L

111

111

LDH

165 – 175 U/L

112

112

Globulin

1.5 – 2.9 g/dl

101

51 and/or 112

A/G

1.3 – 1.7

101

51 and/or 112

T-4

7.5 – 9.0 ug/dl

116 and/or 88

116 and/or 88

Glucose

85 – 100 mg/dl

112

112

Bun

13 – 15 mg/dl

110 and/or 103

51

Creatinine

0.9 – 1.1 mg/dl

51

101 and/or 51

Uric Acid

4.1 – 4.5 mg/dl

101

114 and/or 51

Cholesterol

190 – 205 mg/dl

111

11

Triglycerides

90 – 110 mg/dl

73

11

Iron

90 – 108 ug/dl

111

72

Total Bilirubin

0.3 – 0.5 MG/DL

114

102

Alkaline Phos.

62 – 68 U/L

113

133 and/or 114

Bun/Creat.

10 – 15

Drink more water

WBC

5.0 – 6.0

89

114

RBC

4.5 – 5.1

114

72 and/or 102

Hemoglobin

 13 – 15

88

116

Hematocrit

40 – 55

111

133 and/or 51

SEG/Neutro.

45 – 55

112

112 and/or 113

Lymphocytes

40 – 50

114

112

Basophils

0.0 – 2

112

Eosinophils

0.0 – 2

103 and/or 111

Monocytes

0.0 – 6

114

 REFER TO BLOOD CHEMISTRIES ADDRESSED NATURALLY CHART BELOW

2. Definitions

a. T. Protein: Monitors the total amount of available serum protein. High levels may indicate the need for increased amounts of enzymes in the diet. Low levels may be associated with inadequate intake of high quality protein in the diet, drinking too much water or milk with meals, consuming too much caffeine or inadequate secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

b. Albumin: A type of serum protein associated with the transport of other nutrients. An indicator of possible kidney disorder. High levels may indicate the need for increase amounts of enzymes in the diet. Low levels may be associated with inadequate intake of high quality protein in the diet, drinking too much water or milk with meals, consuming too much caffeine or inadequate secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

c. Calcium: Calcium helps in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system. If high, there may be a loss of calcium to the bones and other tissues. High calcium may be associated with high supplemental intake without adequate amounts of magnesium, and/or phosphorus, excessive eating of cheese, drinking water with high calcium content and with patients with sugar intolerance. When low, look for muscle spasms, neuromuscular hyperexcitability, osteoporosis, dental caries, and periodontal disease. Low levels may be associated with inadequate intake of calcium, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin D, and hydrochloric acid.

d. Inorganic Phosphorus: Phosphorus helps in the parasympathetic nervous system. An increase may be associated with hypervitaminosis D, the healing of fractured bones, renal insufficiency or hypothyroidism. Decreased levels may be associated with disease susceptibility dental caries, kidney stones, arthritis and other degenerative diseases, hyperinsulinism, hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, avitaminosis D, hypopituitarism and alcoholism. Also look for improper digestion of fat and carbohydrates. The symptoms of hypophospotemia are hyperperistalsis, intermittent diarrhea, and constipation, slow starters, indigestion, muscle cramps, morning stiffness and fatigue. Hypophotemia, resembles the symptoms of hypoadrenia. High levels may indicate the need for calcium and magnesium. Low levels may be associated with low intake of phosphorus and other trace minerals.

e. Sodium: Serum sodium abnormalities may be associated with water disorder rather than a sodium potassium problem. High sodium can be associated with a high intake of table salt, diet soda drinks, prepared meats, margarine, soft water, aspirin and sodium containing food preservatives. Low sodium levels have been noted in patients with Addison’s disease, diabetes mellitus, diarrhea, congestive heart failure, nephrosis, rheumatic disease and with severe vomiting. Low sodium levels may cause decreased nerve impulses. High levels indicate the need for lowering the sodium contain ingestibles, as well as nutritionally   supporting the kidneys. Low levels may indicate the need for increasing the intake of sodium and other trace minerals.

f. Potassium: Plays a critical role in the function of the heart. Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia demand a close observation due to the fact that either may be associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias or total heart muscle paralysis or both. High levels of potassium have been noted in patients with underactive pituitary glands, Addison’s disease, adrenocortical insufficiency, chronic nephritis, hypoxia, intestinal obstruction and uremia. Low levels of potassium have been noted in patients who are on diuretic medication, as well as patients who are on a weight loss program which does not include supplemental potassium and during excessive exercise. Low levels of potassium have also been seen in patients who are suffering from diabetic acidosis, pyloric obstruction, starvation, malabsorption, aldosteronism, stressful states, Cushing’s disease, diarrhea and projected vomiting.

g. Chloride: Serum chloride levels along with sodium, potassium and bicarbonate are important in evaluating acid-base relationships and the state of hydration. Elevated levels may be caused by renal insufficiency, dehydration and over medication with steroids, bromides and acetazolamide. Low levels may be caused by vomiting, diarrhea, over treatments with diuretics, emphysema, Addison’s disease, lobal pneumonia, meningitis, acidosis, ulcerative colitis, excessive sweating, fever, congestive heart failure, low salt intake and kidney failure. Chloride is essential for the production of hydrochloric acid by the stomach. Low chloride can be a factor with hypochlorhydria.

h. SGOT: Serum Glutamic Oxalacetic Transaminase is and enzyme normally present in serum and various body tissues; large amounts are found in the liver and heart tissues and less amounts in the skeletal muscles. SGOT plays an important role in the glucose metabolism, acting as a booster. This enzyme is released into the serum as a result of injury to tissues, hence the concentration in the serum may be elevated in prostate conditions, ovary conditions, cancer, myocardial infarction, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, muscular dystrophy, acute skeletal trauma, shock and biliary obstructions. Low levels of SGOT may be associated with inadequate intake of essential fatty acids and vitamin E.

i. SGPT: Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase is an enzyme normally present in the serum and the body tissues, especially the liver, but in lesser amounts in the heart and skeletal muscle tissue. It is released into the serum as a result if tissue injury, hence the concentration in the serum may be increased in patients with acute hepatic cell damage, myocardial infarction and skeletal muscle injury.

j. LDH:  Lactic Dehydrogenase is an enzyme found in normal serum and other body fluids. Activity begins to increase on the first day after myocardial infarction. Damage to the kidneys, liver (hepatitis), skeletal muscles and erythrocytes result in elevated LDH serum. Low levels may be associated with pancreas disease.

k. Globulin: High levels of gamma globulin are associated with acute infection. Globulins are classified as antibody fractions. High levels may indicate the need for increasing the enzymes in the body. Low levels of globulins indicate a severe depletion of the body’s defense mechanism, requiring the addition of amino acids to the diet.

l. A/G Ratio: (Albumin/Globulin Ration) Elevated A/G Ration indicates increased viscosity of the blood and is seen during dehydration and shock. Decreased levels are associated with malnutrition and may be seen because of malabsorption, liver or kidney problems, neoplasms and leukemia.

m. T-4: (Thyroxin) The T-4 test is the first test which should be done to screen for thyroid problems. Elevated levels are indicative of hyperthyroidism. Low levels indicate hypothyroidism and may be associated with hypoproteinemia. A feeling of always being cold or chilled can be associated with hypothyroidism, as may be too rapid weight gain during pregnancy. A constant feeling of being tired may also be associated with hypothyroidism. Rapid weight loss without dieting may be due to hyperthyroidism, but may also be due to cancer.

n. Glucose: Many factors can influence glucose levels. Insulin lowers the level, while lack of insulin allows the blood sugars to remain elevated (diabetes mellitus). Hyperinsulinism is associated with hypoglycemia; hypoinsulinism is associated with diabetes. High or low levels of glucose require eliminating refined white sugar and refined simple carbohydrates from the diet and adding additional high quality proteins and complex carbohydrates.

o. BUN: (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Urea is the primary end product of protein metabolism and is excreted almost entirely through the kidneys. If urination is impaired, plasma urea concentration will rise. Elevated levels indicate kidney damage, urinary obstruction, Addison’s disease, dehydration or excessive animal protein consumption. Low levels indicate hepatic failure, tissue necrosis, pregnancy or can be caused by steroid medication.

p. Creatinine: A metabolic waste product excreted almost entirely by the kidneys. One of the best tests for kidney function. Elevated levels indicate acute or chronic kidney insufficiency, urinary obstruction or kidney disease. Low levels may indicate severe muscle wasting.

q. Uric Acid: A purine compound, the level of which is used to diagnose gout. While not all high uric acid levels produce symptoms of gout, all gouty patients have a high serum level or uric acid. Elevated levels may indicate gout, toxemia of pregnancy, Addison’s disease, kidney failure, nitrogen retention, shock, polycythemia, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension or pneumonia. Low levels may be associated with acute hepatitis or acromegaly.

r. Cholesterol: A steroid normally found in all body cells and in the body plasma. There are wide variations in the plasma levels doe normal people and many conditions in which cholesterol levels are affected. Cholesterol is normally stored in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream as needed for efficient utilization. There are two types of cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. High density cholesterol is an anti-arteriosclerosis agent, while low density cholesterol is associated with the formation of atheromatous plaques. An elevated level is called hypercholesterolemia of hyperlipemia and may be associated with hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, nephrosis, biliary cirrhosis, obstructive jaundice or hypoproteinemia. Low levels may be associated with low hormone production, acute hepatitis, hyperthyroidism, anemia or malnutrition. THIS IS USUALLY INCLUDED IN A CORONARY RISK FACTOR TEST. It has recently been proven that diet has little effect on cholesterol levels, more so, exercise is the most effective way to control a tendency towards high cholesterol levels.

s. Triglycerides: These are lipid compounds consisting of three molecules of fatty acids esterified to glycerol. These are neutral fats synthesized from carbohydrates and sugars for storage in fat cells. Elevated triglyceride levels are associated with a secondary artery disease and triglycerides were more frequently found elevated than cholesterol. A definite link has been established between faulty lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels may be associated with atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypothyroidism, pancreatitis, nephrosis and primary hyperlipidemia.

t. Iron: Serum iron levels may be increased due to hemolytic, hypoplastic, sickle cell and pernicious anemias, as well as in patients receiving excessive parenteral (injected) iron. Iron levels are decreased in chronic infectious anemia, iron deficiency anemias, during pregnancy and with hypoplastic bone marrow conditions.

u. Total Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a bile pigment. It is a breakdown product of heme mainly formed from the degradation of erythrocyte hemoglobin in reticuloendothelial cells, but also formed by the breakdown of other heme pigments. Bilirubin normally circulates in plasma is a complex with albumin. It is taken up by the liver and then secreted by the gallbladder. Increased levels are associated with liver disorder, hemolytic anemia and defects in conjunction (joining together). The liver disorders include hepatocellular diseases such as hepatitis or cirrhosis and biliary obstruction which causes a build up of bilirubin in the bloodstream.

v. Alkaline Phosphorus: Alkaline phosphorus plays an important in bone formation and the serum alkaline phosphorus level for children should normally be elevated above adult levels. Alkaline phosphorus is also found in the kidneys, mammary glands, spleen, lungs, leukocytes, adrenal cortex and seminiferous tubules. Its levels is increased in any disease characterized by increased bone formation or attempts at bine formation such as Paget’s disease, hyperparathyroidism, rickets and certain bone tumors. Increased levels may also be seen during adrenal gland conditions. Alkaline phosphatase is also excreted in the bile, and most types of liver diseases are accompanied by an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity in the blood. Higher levels will be seen in obstructive jaundice than in primary disease of the liver. Persistent low levels of serum alkaline phosphatase activity is found in a hereditary bone disease and hypophospatasia. Note: If a blood sample has been stored at room temperature for a period of time, there will be a false increase alkaline phosphatase due to it being released from RBC as they breakdown (hemolyzed).

w. BUN/Creatinine Ratio: Blood Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine are kidney function tests and their ratio to each other helps identify dietary or physiological derangements. Creatinine levels in the serum helps to determine how much of the azotemia (an excess of urea and/or other nitrogenous bodies in the blood) is due to dietary or physiological problems.

x. WBC (White Blood Cells): Elevated WBC’s may be seen in the following conditions: severe emotional stress syndromes, hemorrhage gout, rheumatic fever, eclampsia, uremia meningitis, tonsillitis, bone fractures, ulcerative tumors, leukemia, pregnancy, polycythemia vera and during menstruation.  

DECREASED WBC’s may be seen in the following conditions: strenuous exertion, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, carbon monoxide poisoning, excessive vomiting, bleeding ulcers, sickle cell anemia, hemolytic anemia and chronic cardiac insufficiency.

y. RBC (Red Blood Cells): Decreased RBC’s may be seen in the following conditions. Anemia, hemorrhage, iron deficiency, leukemia, malabsorption of nutrients (iron, copper, manganese, folic acid, B – 12, etc.)

z. Hemoglobin: Hemoglobin is the substance found in the blood which is responsible for oxygen transport to all cells of the body and is most frequently decreased in anemia. 

INCREASED hemoglobin may be seen in the following conditions: dehydration, chronic carbon monoxide poisoning, emphysema, cardiac insufficiency, and hemoconcentration.

DECREASED hemoglobin may be seen in the following conditions: anemia, blood loss, leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, malignant tumors, ulcerative colitis, lead poisoning and parasite infections.

aa. Hematocrit: Used to determine the volume percent and volume index of RBS’s.

INCREASED hematocrit may be seen in the following conditions: dehydration, excessive stress and polycythemia.

DECREASED hematocrit may be seen in the following conditions: shock, hemorrhage and anemias.

bb. Neutrophils or SEG’s: These cells originate from bone marrow sites and are granular in nature.

INCREASED neutrophils may be seen in the following conditions: infections both local and systematic; inflammations; cancer such as carcinoma, lymphoma and leukemia; tissue necrosis; tissue trauma; hemorrhage; toxemia; myocardial infarctions and tuberculosis.

DECREASED neutrophils may be seen in the following conditions: chronic infections, x-ray radiation, bone marrow damage, vitamin B-1 and folic acid deficiency, some drug reactions, lupus and tuberemia.

cc. Lymphocytes: Produced in lymphoid tissues such as the thymus gland, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, etc.

ELEVATED lymphocytes may be seen in the following conditions: febrile diseases, shingles, acute infections, mononucleosis, hepatitis, lymphatic leukemia, goiter, tuberculosis and whooping cough.

DECREASED lymphocytes may be seen in the following conditions: acute irradiation syndromes, lupus, myelocytic leukemia and leukocytosis.

dd. Basophils: A type of leukocyte which liberates heparin, histamine hyaluronic acid and serotonin. Heparin is a substance which can prevent blood from coagulating and can also help remove fat particles from the blood. Histamine and serotonin are vasoactive agents and hyaluronic acid is a ground substance in the intestitia spaces.

ELEVATED basophils can be seen in the following conditions: prolonged chronic inflammation, during the healing phase of inflammation, RBC clumping, polycythemia vera (rubra), colitis, Hodgkin’s disease, myeloid leukemia and chronic infections.

DECREASED basophils can be seen in the following conditions: allergies, hyperthyroidism and over stress situations.

ee. Eosinophils: A type of leukocytes which are phagocytes and exhibit chemotaxis. Their functions is to detoxify foreign proteins before they cause damage to the body. Eosinophils enter the bloodstream in large numbers following the injection of foreign protein, as well as when parasites invade body tissues, or when foreign proteins pass through the gut and into the bloodstream.

ELEVATED eosinophils may be seen in the following conditions: allergies, parasites, psoriasis, other skin conditions, menstruation, eosinophilic granuloma and excessive radiation exposure.

DECREASED eosinophils may be seen in the following conditions: marked intoxification and acute infections.

ff. Monocytes: A mononuclear phagocytic leukocytes. Monocytes are formed in the lymph nodes and are mobile cell units of the body’s defense system.

ELEVATED monocytes may be seen in the following conditions: infections, parasitic infections, tuberculosis, Hodgkin’s disease, monocytic leukemia, atypical fevers and excessive radiation exposure.

DECREASED monocytes have no significance.

Blood Chemistries Addressed Naturally 

BLOOD PANEL INTERPRETATION SUMMARY
A SIMPLIFIED EXPLANATION FOR PATIENTS

 

By: W. R. Doenges ND(P)                                                                                                                        August 16, 2012

How many patient are just told “Your results look good” after their physicians received the blood panel back from the lab? Most often the patient never sees these results thereby saving the physicians time to explain what is being tested. A patient might want to know what measurement, if anything, has an undesirable trend towards abnormal. 95% of patients will fall into the reference range by the lab design as normal. Obviously the closer the patient is to the limit, usually the higher the risk factor. This article is an attempt to explain to practitioners what each of the usual parameters measured really means but in layman terms as if you were talking to a patient.

CBC
The first inexpensive test panel usually run is the CBC or Complete Blood Count. This tells the practitioner the number and percentage of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC) and the platelet counts of the various type.

WBC                      Number of white blood cells. A high number usually means infection but can mean a certain type of leukemia. Low counts can mean bone marrow disease or enlarged spleen. Most low are benign.

RBC                        Number of red blood cells. A low number usually means anemia                              

Hemoglobin       Hgb is the amount of O2 carrying protein within the red blood cells. Low Hgb could be excessive blood loss (in the stool for example) or nutritional deficiencies. Intestine problems yielding low B12 like Celiac Disease.

Hematocrit         Hct is % of blood occupied by RBC

MCV                      Mean Corpuscular Volume. Small is young RBC. Large is old RBC and low production of new RBC. B12 and folate will help.

Platelet                PLT. The number of cells that plug holes in the arteries. Blood thinners will lower the number. Bleeding, smoking, or excess production by the bone marrow will raise it.

There are other platelet sub-species like Eos that when high indicate allergies or parasites.

The main ones are covered above.

Lipid Panel
This test depending on the thoroughness can be inexpensive or fairly expensive costing hundreds of dollars. It depends on insurance and how much the physician wants to know. For the purpose of this discussion – because it is important – I’ll explain the more comprehensive test of the various lipid sizes.

The simplest test is LDL (low density lipids), HDL (high density lipids) and Triglycerides. This is like describing the auto industry as comprised of big cars, little cars and trucks without regards to the subcategories of mini, compact, midsize, pickups, 1 ton trucks etc. In the case of lipids, the very small, dense particles are the most dangerous (statins won’t affect them) through the really big ones (by comparison) HDL helpful particles that carry the dangerous small ones back to the liver for processing.

This explanation is the way of saying that it is good to know the particle size types in more detail. Atherotech Labs plus other labs give this insight but the practitioner has to know the reason to order the more thorough test. Otherwise insurance may deny the claim. Books that have been written on lipids include detail beyond the scope of this article.

Total LDL                              Often the only number you get and not a true picture of risk

LDL 1+2+3+4                       Concentration of the blood of the intermediate sizes

Lp(a)                                      A very dangerous dense particle not corrected by statins and a predictor of
                                           future cardiovascular disease. Above is bad news

VLDL2                                    Very low density lipoprotein of moderate risk

VLDL3                                    Very low density lipoprotein of high risk. Not touched by statins. Below 15 is OK

Total HDL                             Total of the big ‘Good Guys”. Like to see it over 40. Usually all the data you get

HDL2                                      The best of the ‘Big Guys”. Like to see over 10

HDL3                                      Of the moderate “Good Guy” protection. Like to see over 30

Triglycerides                       A type of fat also made by the liver that can aggravate cardiovascular disease if over 150. Usually there isn’t much concern unless the number exceeds 500. To lower, reduce animal fat, increase fish oil, lose weight and drastically reduce sugar. Sugar can convert to triglycerides.

The reference ranges aren’t listed here for brevity. The reporting labs do a good job of giving the range. They determine the normal range from very large populations of people. An average (mean) is calculated and limits are set by the deviation from the mean calculations.

Chem Panel
A listing of the electrolytes necessary for nerve conduction and muscle contraction. Note that heart is a muscle contracting 60 times per minute on average.

Sodium                                Heart patients are usually on a sodium (salt) restricted diet                         

Potassium                           Diuretics (HCTZ for example) cause potassium loss. It must be supplemented. Essential for heart function

Chlorides                             Usually mirrors sodium

Calcium                                Controlled by parathyroid glands mostly independent of diet

CO2                                       Carbon dioxide from the cell waste. Lowers blood pH via carbonic acid. Exhaled via the lungs.

Liver Enzyme

AST, ALT                               Elevated by alcohol, fatty liver due to obesity, Hepatitis and other liver diseases.

Alkaline Phosphatases   Found in the bones and liver. Elevated due to bone/liver damage and to obstructed bile duct. Low values with hypothyroidism or genetic.

GGT                                       Elevated if bile duct obstruction independent of bone condition.

Bilirubin                                A pigment removed from the blood via the liver.                                             

CPK                                        Useful to diagnose muscle breakdown heart or skeletal. Elevated 2 or 3 hours after heart attack.

Proteins

Albumin                               Main protein in blood. Important for water movement between blood and tissues.

Globulin, total                   Protein used for the production of antibodies. Also carrier of other components like hemoglobin and fibrinogen for clotting.

Metabolic Panel

Glucose                                All cells require glues (sugar from foods) for food. But too much glucose – well over 100 – can damage the cells glucose receptors eventually causing insulin resistance Type II diabetes.

HbA1c                                   The average glucose over a 2-3 month period. If over 5.6, think about changing diet and lifestyle. 6.7 and over equals diabetes Type II.

Insulin                                   The “Key” that gets the glucose into the cells receptors

GlycoMark                          A newer measurement to check if glucose is spilling into the urine. Also a diabetic marker. A number towards the higher limit is desirable.

Cardiac Risk Factors

CRP                                        C Reactive Protein. A high number is an indication of artery inflammation.

Homocysteine                   An inflammatory marker. B vitamins and folic acid will help.

Kidney Function

BUN                                       Blood Urine Nitrogen. Byproduct of normal protein breakdown excreted by the kidneys.

Creatinine                           Waste product of muscle breakdown (more after exercise) and normal protein waste.

eGFR                                     Glomular Filtration Rate. Calculated from creatinine clearance as a measure of how well the kidneys are filtering the blood. Values over 60 are normal. Less than 40 is suspicious.

Endocrine

TSH                                        Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. TSH is the signal from the pituitary telling the thyroid how much thyroid hormone to produce to control the body metabolism. Too high = not enough thyroid hormone. Numerous symptoms with insufficient hormone. Optimal is 1.5 +/- 1.0

There are other thyroid hormones measure plus oxidants that antagonize the thyroid and thyroid

Hormones.

Testosterone                     Male hormone optimally in the 600 and above. Declines with age.
Female hormone strongly associated with muscle mass and libido.
Optimally 50 to 100 range pre and post-menopause (post – with therapy). Declines with age.

Estradiol                               Male: Version of the female hormone. Undesirable cause of gynomastica or enlarged male breasts. There have been documented cases of male breast cancer.
Female: Variable depending on menses cycle and declining with age.

Progesterone                    Female: Depending on menses cycle and declining with age.

There are many other biochemical to measure depending on the patient’s medical problem. Adrenal fatigue is another issue not addressed by the typical panel. Adrenal fatigue, a large scale problem due to our stressful business and society pressures, is the subject for another article.

Cardiovascular disease is and acute issue requiring special parameters.

These are the essentials, in this author’s opinion, for a typical panel. Some practitioners may take exception for omission or brevity of explanation of parameters.

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